HPAIV cause high mortality and severe respiratory, intestinal and reproductive disease and is efficiently transmitted within and between poultry farms. HPAI H5 is increasingly found in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and North America, spilling back and forth between wild bird reservoirs and domestic poultry. Non-notifiable LPAIVs can also cause disease, especially in combination with other pathogens. Some LPAIV strains, such as H9N2, have zoonotic potential and have become endemic in many regions. Prevention, control and surveillance strategies include strict biosecurity measures to reduce contact between poultry, and wild birds and poultry. In addition, quick detection of infections in wild and domestic birds, monitoring of global virus evolution patterns and vaccination are essential.